The winner of the 1st Indianapolis 500 was born and raised in Spartansburg. He was the son of Russell and Lucy (Halliday) Harroun and was born January 12, 1879.
His dad was a carpenter who became the Spartansburg Postmaster in 1880.
Harroun spent his early years in the home that his father built on Washington Street. That home still stands. The family lived in the area for several years before moving to Ohio in about 1899.
Following high school graduation, he entered the US Naval Academy where he earned a degree in Mechanics. He served during the Spanish American War of 1898. He was honorably discharged and lived in Erie, Pa for a short time. Later, he moved to Akron, Ohio with his family. While there, he learned the trade as dental assistant and also worked in a men’s clothing store.
Ray married Edythe Guilford in February of 1900
Ray and Edythe moved to Chicago, initially to continue his dental education. But as he worked on the equipment involved, he realized that he was good at anything mechanical.
HIS BEGINNINGS AS A DRIVER
While in Chicago, Ray became acquainted with William Thorne who was the president and CEO of a mail order company named Montgomery Ward. Thorne had just purchased a “horseless carriage” and he asked Harroun to become his chauffeur. Ray waited until Thorne left, then began to teach himself how to drive a car.
His experience with driving encouraged his interest in automobiles and, eventually in racing. This interest caused him to move to Indianapolis to be closer to the evolving automobile industry. While there, he became involved with the Chevrolet brothers and cars belonging to Charles Miller (a business man and oil industry leader from Franklin PA. When Miller sold his cars to the Buick Race Team they hired Ray as a mechanic.
ON TO RACING
Ray wanted to be a driver, but he had no experience and the race teams already had drivers. So, he decided that he would need to build his own race car. In 1905, he built the car on a Marmon chassis, but with an engine he designed. With the car he called the “Harroun Special” he began winning county fair races and became noticed.
In 1910, Harroun won enough races to be named the AAA Champion Driver (the award was made in 1927 based on points-no such championships were awarded in 1910).
Harroun ran several races before his Indy 500 win. Howard Marmon took notice of Ray and hired him as head engineer in charge of the new racing division. He drew up plans for a 6 cylinder single seat car with a pointed tail. This design was unusual since most racers had 2 men in the car- a driver and another who helped to watch traffic.
In April, Harroun returned from racing on the west coast and the car was ready- painted yellow and black stripes and nicknamed “Yellow Jacket”
In May, they raced in different length races in Atlanta and won the 10, 12 and 200 mile races- with Ray at the wheel for the 200.
They returned to Indianapolis ready to race. The Indianapolis racetrack was new and had gone through several changes and improvements. They ran in a 100 mile race and a 200 mile race, with Harroun winning the 200 mile and a very prestigious trophy. He then announced that he was retiring as a driver so that he could concentrate on engineering new designs.
BACK FROM RETIREMENT TO WIN
By 1911, the Indianapolis track officials decided to run just 1 race on Memorial Day that would be 500 miles long, Ray had re-designed the Yellow Jacket (dubbed the Wasp by reporters), and allowed Marmon to talk him into driving in the 500 mile race. Ray agreed to drive as long as he couild have a relief driver.
With the mechanical knowledge that Harroun had acquired, he had a few thoughts on the best way to run the race. He would run an average of 75 MPH for the entire race because doing so would save the tires and require fewer pit stops. He had verified his thoughts with Firestone.
He qualified for the race but there were complaints from other drivers that he did not have a mechanic riding with him-even though he had raced without that person before. To resolve the concern from the others that he would not be able to see if someone was passing, he found a 3 x 8 mirror and had it mounted in the car. He had seen a mirror like this on horse-drawn vehicle, but his was the first known use of a rear view mirror in a car. He later stated that it wasn’t a concern for him because no one would be passing him.
Several reports of the happenings of the race are available, including some at the end of this article. The primary fact is that Ray Harroun, a Spartansburg hometown boy, won the 1st Indianapolis 500 in the Marmon Wasp that he had designed.
In 1961, for the 50th Anniversary of the Indy 500 Race, Harroun returned to Indianapolis to drive his Marmon Wasp in pre-race ceremonies. The Wasp was and still is on display in the Hall of Fame at the track.
AFTER RACING…MORE INVENTING…AND MANUFACTURING…
HIS OWN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
https://saginawcountyhalloffame3.org/ray-harroun (Saginaw County (Michigan) Hall of Fame
https://sites.google.com/site/mikestuffonly/harroun-motors-corporation (Private website with a collection of Harroun items)
Ray Harroun is credited with several inventions and partnered with others to develop items like the following:
~a carburetor where the fuel mixture was heated by exhaust
~a race car than ran on kerosene
A year before his win at the Indy 500 Harroun partnered with Carl S. Bates (of the Bates Engineering Co.) to develop their own aero engine and aircraft, an advanced monoplane design with a steel frame, aluminium sheet skin, and front mounted 24-hp, 2-cycle Bates-Harroun engine. Both Bates and Harroun flew the plane, and it would be many years until their all-metal aircraft design become the de facto standard.
~a low cart to haul bombs that was used through WWII and into the Viet Nam era. (this video might show the cart in use in WWII) https://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675051689_B-29-Super-Fortress_mechanics-working_loading-bombs_bomb-dolly-moving
~the Pribil Safety Air Car- a precursor to motor home ( Shaped like a teardrop, it had room for eight passengers, slept four with a sink, table, refrigerator and radio. It got 50 miles per gallon and sold for $1000.) https://www.allcarindex.com/production/united-states/pribil/
Ray Harroun was a very respected mechanical expert. He brought innovative ideas and the ability to bring those ideas to life to his endeavors and employment. Spartansburg gave him the start that helped him on his way.
Ray Harroun died at the age of 89 in Anderson, Indiana
Link to Find-a-Grave detail of Ray Harroun and family
In 1984, a committee from Spartansburg gathered information and sent letters to try to get a Ray Harroun postal stamp in celebration of the 75th anniversary of his win at Indianapolis. The committee was headed by Dolly Firth who was Spartansburg’s Postmaster at the time. The stamp was not issued for the 75th Anniversary, but it was for the 100th in 2011.
Copies of the Request and a letter from Indianapolis Speedway can be found below:
The Marmon “Wasp” was also featured on a 17.5-cent stamp in the Transportation Series in 1987.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES, INTERVIEWS AND TELEVISION APPEARANCE
AN INTERVIEW WITH HARROUN’S SON, RICHARD:
(an older son, Ray Jr. was killed in an automobile accident when he was
10 years old)
His son, Dick was interviewed about his father. That interview can be found here: http://raceremote.com/media/racerewind/race-rewind-all-shows/test-post
AN APPEARANCE ON “I’VE GOT A SECRET”
He appeared on the TV show, “I’ve Got a Secret”. Here is video from that appearance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_eh-9c1Y9vY
Additional articles about Ray Harroun: